As part of my continuing Command Line Magic series and many of the other Command Line oriented posts I’ve made (click here for category-summary of Command Line oriented posts, or just click the Command Line tag in the tag cloud to the right), I’m happy to post another set of highly useful commands. As always, the context of these commands are within the Bash shell in Linux. A moderate understanding of Bash shell commands is required to fully appreciate this post.
Here are some very useful commands, that any power user would find helpful:
1. Start a simple webserver to serve up any directory as browsable from anywhere (for file transfers):
$ python -m SimpleHTTPServer
I’ve mentioned this in past posts. This is a simple command, that when run from any directory will launch a simple python web server that will serve up the local directory as a browsable directory using a browser such as Firefox or Chrome. Any subdirectories underneath the local directory from which this command is run will also be browsable. You can right-click and save any file or left-click it to attempt to view it on the fly. This works very well over SSH sessions, when you want to transfer a file, but don’t want to engage SSHFS or SCP. You can background the process with a ctrl-z, bg, then pkill python to stop the web server from running, or just leave it running in command prompt and ctrl-c to end it.
2. Record your desktop and pipe the output to an mpeg file.
$ ffmpeg -f x11grab -s wsxga -r 25 -i :0.0 -sameq /home/john/desktop.mpg
- -f allows ffmpeg to grab the data properly from the x11 framebuffer
- -s sets the size of the screen to actually record, starting from the upper left of the screen. Here wsxga denotes a specific preset resolution (in wsxga’s case that would be 1600 x 1024). You can however type any resolution you like in manually (e.g. -s 1024×768). You will need to know the resolution of your desktop to set this correctly.
- -r sets the framerate. This could be left out as 25 is the default.
- -i sets which framebuffer to take, since XWindows can run in multiple sessions, generally you’ll want to leave this setting alone.
- -sameq forces the same quality was what is being fed in by the source (in this case the x11 framebuffer). This is helpful to have a max-quality video, though you may want to try other settings to degrade the quality to keep the file size down. If you’d prefer to reduce the quality on the fly, replace -sameq with -qscale x where x is 1 – 31. These are preset quality settings, with 1 being the highest and 31 being very poor video quality. I have found -qscale 10 to be the sweetspot between quality and file size.
- If you’d like the file to be a bit smaller and if you prefer an .AVI to a raw .MPG, then simply remove the /home/john/desktop.mpg in the command above and replace it with:
- -vcodec mpeg4 /home/john/desktop.avi
- This is file will be a bit smaller using the mpeg4 codec in an avi container. You can still use the -qscale option with this change.
- -vcodec mpeg4 /home/john/desktop.avi
3. Copy an entire directory tree through ssh using on the fly compression through an SSH session (no temporary files!):
$ ssh <host> 'tar -cz /<directory>/<subdirectory>' | tar -xvz
Just enter the <host> to SSH to, and the host’s <directory> and <subdirectory> path to compress that subdirectory on the fly at the host, but decompress it as it arrives locally to your current location and path. This will have the advantage of not taking up any extra space at the host (since the files are compressed as they’re transmitted) and easily drops the entire directory tree specified onto the client uncompressed, saving time and bandwidth and transmission time.
This works well for large directory trees and is easy to use for a quick copy where you don’t want to spend a lot of time compressing it at the host manually and transmitting the compressed file, then uncompressing it, then deleting the original compressed file created at the host. Note: This will replicate the full directory path at the client side (desired).
SCP or RSYNC are recommended for automated backup though, this is more appropriate for a 1-shot copy of a large directory.
4. Resize any image files in the current directory to Width x Height specifed (regardless of image format)!
$ for a in `ls`; do echo $a && convert $a -resize <Width>x<Height> $a; done
Simply do a man convert to learn more about the convert program, other options can be added into the command. Also this is a great syntax for doing ANYTHING to any files in a particular directory that would be a batch process consistent with all the files in that directory.
5. Grab a screenshot of the current desktop to the current directory
$ import -pause 5 -window root desktop_screenshot.jpg
This command will wait 5 seconds (assuming you want some time to set up the shot and to get the command prompt out of the way) and take a snapshot of the root (primary) desktop currently running. This command requires imagemagick be installed.